Research Paper 45
Revised May 2020

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This work is independent of any existing religions denomination, church, organisation or group.


The Bible refers back to a time when a water shield was suspended above the earth's atmosphere, probably in ice crystals, held in a suspended orbit as satellites are today.  This screening layer would have roofed the earth's atmosphere, thicker over the equator, tapering towards the poles, forming a global atmospheric climate controlling mechanism (see foot note 3) .

Providing this canopy mechanism was suspended higher than 15 km, it would protect the earth's atmosphere from forming C14 carbon dioxide "much of the carbon-14 production takes place at altitudes of 9 to 15 km (30,000 to 50,000 ft), and at high geomagnetic latitudes, where C-14 then reacts relatively rapidly with oxygen to form carbon dioxide (CO2)".  The existence of this protective shield would alter radically all Radiocarbon dating calculations older than 4,400 years.

This shield would have had the effect of dissipating thermal heat rays from the sun evenly over the surface of the planet.  Protecting equator regions from the intense overheating of the sun as experienced today and dispersing this heat out toward the polar regions, making for a more even temperate climate throughout the entire earth's surface.  This would explain evidence found of temperate vegetation and animals living close to the polar regions and why warm climate animals living in these now arctic areas were suddenly destroyed and preserved in ice.  The vast desert areas of the earth today show evidence during earlier chapters of man's history of  having abundant water supplies and lush vegetation throughout the year, the same temperate climate that the Neanderthals or Nephilim lived in  (see research paper.no38.html).

This protective outer layer surrounding the earth's atmosphere dissipated the sun's warmth around the earth, creating the effect of a global green house roof.  Just as the panes of glass block the sun's harmful radiation rays entering the green house.  You will never get a suntan sitting inside a glass green house on a sunny day.  So too, the ice crystal layer above the atmosphere protected the earth from harmful cosmic ray bombardment, screening out most of the C14.  Today, without this canopy, we are unprotected from the constant bombardment of these rays and so, subject to the effects of premature ageing.  Science links the bombardment of these radiation rays to cell and DNA breakdown as part of the human ageing process.


According to Bible manuscripts, it was this ice canopy that provided the means to deluge the earth ( see foot note 3 at end of paper ).  This suspended canopy was broken up some 4,400 years ago.  A catastrophic fall of water came on the earth with the breaking-up of this suspended ice canopy.  Possibly, centrifugal and gravitational forces holding it in position could have been adjusted in the same way satellites can be programmed to fall to earth by adjustments to their orbit.

Scientists acknowledge that the earth's magnetic force fields have at certain times reversed themselves.  Surveys revealed that they have reversed on more than one occasion.  Did a reversing of the magnetic field provide the trigger mechanism, briefly altering the orbit speed, pulling down this ice layer?

Much of the billions upon billions of tons of suspended ice crystals would have been drawn down toward the poles by gravitational and centrifugal forces, melting to sleet and water as it fell, freezing back to ice under high velocity winds as it came crashing down at the polar regions.  The canopy's removal would cause major dramatic changes to the earth's former benign climate.

Build up of water and ice falling at the polar regions would have forced it under great pressures into gigantic glaciers spreading out from the North and South poles toward the equators, gouging great valleys under the rapid movement of mountains of ice.  Glaciers bulldozed along under tremendous pressure, everything in their paths destroyed.  With a continual falling of this water and ice for 40 days (see foot note 4) at both poles, more and more ice piled up, creating enormous pressure until its sheer weight cracked the earth's outer crust, buckling and breaking it up into the land masses we now have.  These cracks in the land mass crushed against one another, forced up massive longitude mountain ranges, while the weight of massive ice glaciers, along with billions of tons of additional water, forced down surface depressions, causing the masses of additional water to settle into the new great ocean basins we have today.  Even today, the weight of the ice mass at the Antarctic is causing the earth's crust to depress up to half a mile.  See  APPENDIX 8A  FOR MORE INFORMATION ON WATER CANOPY ENDS AT DELUGE .


How does the available evidence fit with this?  Did the flood mechanism provide the required criteria needed to cause the massive longitude cracking of the earth's crust that we see today?

It certainly could have provided the energy to create the tremendous forces needed to tear apart and crack up the earth's crust.  It could also have provided massive rapid energy to drive the cracked continental plates apart in some places and overriding neighbouring plates.  Compressing and forcing plate edges against one another with such force, driving them up to form the world's great mountain ranges that have recently come into existence.

The hypothesis that the crust of the earth could have been cracked into the continental plates by a massive thickening of the earth's polar ice caps, was put forward by Hapgood and Campbell in 1958, in their publication "Earth's Shifting Crust".

Professor Melvin Cook took this theory and modelled it.  He started with a situation where the earth's mantel was more or less fairly uniformly covered with crust from pole to pole.  By creating a build up of ice at the poles, he finally cracked the crust, the fracture lines determined by the pressures being exerted from the opposing polar forces.  These pressures on the earth's crust can be likened to the effect on the shell of a hard boiled egg being squeezed in a vice at both ends.  When the earth's crust fractured, it would have snapped rapidly and violently, and like the pieces of the egg shell, quickly separated in some places, but in others, forced up against one another.

Professor Cook believes that the ancient great Arctic ice cap, a mass of some 100 million tons, disappeared suddenly about 10,000 years ago.  To explain this, he says it would be necessary for the ice to have dissipated catastrophically.  He concludes "the evidence proves the earth's crust was rapidly forced up into the great mountain ranges at about the same time masses of ice and snow were released forming the present oceans".

This pole to pole directional cracking, forcing up great mountain ranges, can be born out by a study of the direction of the earth's mountain ranges on a globe.  There is also much evidence, which supports a recent earth, having much less water on its surface and far more dry land:

1. Vast amounts of terrestrial animal remains found thousands of meters deep in the oceans, evidence the land was once above sea level.

2. Marine animal remains including whale skeletons, bear evidence of a sudden extinction found hundreds of meters above sea level, evidence of some force causing the water to suddenly and dramatically raise above the original sea level.

3. Thousands of flat top islands over 1,000 meters high have been charted deep at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean.  They are encrusted with coral, revealing they, at one time, must have been at or near the surface.

4. The island of Great Britain was once linked to Europe by a connecting plateau, its average depth now 120 meters below present sea level, at one time all dry land.  Remains of forests, animal, human and Neanderthal bones have all been found on this plateau, evidence of a previously much lower sea level with a temperate climate.

5. The oceans and seas at present cover some 70% of the earth's surface.  It has been calculated that if 20% of the earth's water was evaporated off, some 50% more dry land would appear, the re-emergence of much of the land that was at one time above the water.  A suspended ice canopy as described, could comfortably have taken up more than 20% of the waters.

For information on why the earth's population was destroyed, see WHY DESTROY ENTIRE HUMAN POPULATION BY A FLOOD?

The Bible dates pre-flood human occupation of the Earth along with Neanderthal/Nephilim between 6,000 and 4,400 years ago, a period of some 1,600 years. Laughable!  Cry the scientists. Much older dates have been proven by the Carbon dating clock, but before one laughs too loud, lets examine the situation.



'Science' has created a theoretic "geological column chart", on which the theory of evolution is hung.  The most recent chart, now used in most museums and universities, is that drawn up by Van Eysinga in 1975.  This chart covers some 600 million years ,dividing time into periods, i.e Cretaceous 65 to 140 million years ago; Jurassic 140 to 195 million years ago etc, etc.  This chart cannot be found in nature, it is theoretical, pieced together from various inter-related strata from all over the world.  These vast time periods have been allocated in the chart to allow for the slow burying of fossils in sedimentary rock layers.  This cannot be proved in any of the deposits being formed today, it is all based on estimated guess work.

When a geologist has difficulty dating a rock stratum, he requests the evolutionist's opinion on the date of the fossils the rock contains.  This then becomes its 'established' age date.  On the other hand, when an evolutionist has difficulty dating a fossil, he requests the geologist's opinion on the age of the rock containing the fossil, which then becomes its 'accepted' age date.  A case of two theories being cross referenced in order to establish a so called fact??


Technically, the carbon dating process is very accurate, making precise calculations according to a set formula.  The clock itself works very well; like a stop watch.  The problems come with the set up data fed into it, unless the calibrations are realistic and accurate the clock is no good.  Example, if an extremely accurate clock is set to the wrong time to start with, no matter how accurate it is, the time it shows will always be wrong.  Or, if a clock has its mechanism set to a 25 hour day calibration with accuracy down to one thousandth of a second, the time it shows will always be useless to its owner and the error accumulates day by day.

Cosmic ray protons blast nuclei in the upper atmosphere, producing neutrons, which in turn bombard nitrogen, the major constituent of the atmosphere.  This neutron bombardment produces the radioactive isotope carbon-14.  Radioactive carbon-14 combines with oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide, and is incorporated into the life cycle of all living things.  In minute quantities through photosynthesis, C14 from carbon dioxide passes into plants and thereby animals, being absorbed into all living things along the food chain.

When an organism dies, it contains a ratio of C14 to C12,  the C14 decays with no possibility of replenishment so the ratio decreases at a regular rate.  The measurement of C14 decay provides an indication of the age of any carbon-based material (its raw radiocarbon age).  One of the most frequent uses of radiocarbon dating is to estimate the age of organic remains from archaeological sites.  Carbon dating can only be used on matter which was once living, taking in carbon dioxide from the air for photosynthesis.  Rocks, stone, pottery, flint tools cannot be dated by this process.  The ratio of C12 to its minute cousin C14 is constant in all living things (today one C14 atom to one billion C12 atoms).

So, how has this Carbon dating clock been set?  Scientists claim they have accurately calculated the age of Neanderthal bones, using this Radio Carbon C14 method.  How?  It is assumed that as C14 has been forming in the atmosphere constantly and continually for millions of years, its build up has reached a constant saturation point (the radiocarbon reservoir), which they calculate would have taken some 30,000 years.  So, it is assumed that as much C14 is now decaying as being formed.  C14 absorbed into any living thing during its life time, starts to decay once the living thing dies.  After death, half the amount of C14 decays away to nitrogen gas in about 5,700 years.  Half of the remaining half, decays away in a further 5,700 years and so on, until immeasurably small.  Once a plant or animal dies, it stops taking in C14 and decay starts at the above rate, while C12 stays the same.

This dating test relies entirely on knowing exactly what the original ratio mix of C14 to C12 was.  The clock is only accurate if the ratio is the same today as when the organism lived, and that it remained constant throughout its life and after its death, right up to the time of dating.  If there had been less C14 in the atmosphere during its lifetime, then it would have absorbed less and the ratio would read much lower with a resulting lower count per second, giving a much older false reading.

In order to fit in with the evolution theory, evolutionists believe there has been no change in the ratio of C14 to C12 for millions of years.  William Libby and his co-workers, while developing the radiocarbon dating method in the 1940s, believed that the amount of C14 in the world could not possibly have varied during the time that mankind has been on the Earth, simply because the Earth is of an immense age, some 4,600 million years old, so they believe.  Because of this great age, it has been assumed the 30,000 year transition period required for the atmosphere to have built up its C14 ‘equilibrium value’, must have already occurred and that the terrestrial radiocarbon reservoir has reached a steady state.


To test this theoretically assumed saturation while developing his C14 dating method,
Libby made measurements of both the rate of formation and the rate of decay of radiocarbon.  Libby found, to his surprise, a considerable discrepancy in his measurements; apparently, radiocarbon was being created in the atmosphere, somewhere around 25% faster than it was becoming extinct.  Since this result to him was inexplicable, he put it down to experimental error.

During the 1960s, chemists repeated Libby’s experiments with refined techniques.  They revealed that the discrepancy of Libby’s was not experimental error, but really did exist.  Richard Longenfelter found 'There is strong indication, despite the large errors that the present natural production rate exceeds the natural decay rate by as much as 25%'.

Other researchers have since confirmed this finding, including Hans Suess, of the University of Southern California in the Journal of Geophysical Research and V R Switzer, writing in Science.  Melvin Cook, Professor of Metallurgy at Utah University, reviewed the data of Suess and Lingenfelter, and reached the conclusion that the present rate of formation of carbon 14 is 18.4 atoms per gram per minute, and the rate of decay 13.3 atoms per gram per minute, a ratio indicating that formation exceeds decay by some 38 per cent.

Many other researchers have shown that C14 in the atmosphere is still increasing at between 25 to 38% more than is at present decaying.  This indicates that the atmosphere, because it has not yet reached saturation with C14 (saturation point is reached when the amount decaying is the same as that being formed), is either still building up and is therefore much younger than the originally considered 30,000 years, or at some stage, the atmosphere was inhibited from the present rate of cosmic particle bombardment, creating C14 in the atmosphere.  If this last possibility of its being inhibited were the case, it would mean the build up time of C14 would require much longer than the estimated 30,000 years to reach saturation equilibrium.

Professor Cook went one step further, taking the latest measured figures on radiocarbon formation and decay.  He then calculated them back to the point at which there would have been zero radiocarbon.  In so doing, he is, in effect, using the radiocarbon technique to date the Earth's atmosphere.  His resulting calculations showed that the present rate of composition of C14 has only been going on for about  10,000 years!  This could only mean the amount of C14 in the atmosphere thousands of years ago was dramatically less, and so reduced the amount absorbed by living organisms during their life times.  When making present day readings of C14 based on wrongly assumed atmosphere saturation, the C14 clock creates erroneous, much older dates.  If only 10,000 years of C14 build up has occurred to date, saturation has not yet arrived.  So, the clock needs to be reset to give correct age readings.

Looking at Neanderthal bones, if we assume for the moment that Neanderthal bones are one and the same as Nephilim bones (see research paper 38  NEANDERTHAL = NEPHILIM?)The Nephilim race are recorded in the Bible to have existed some 4,500 years ago.  This date is confirmed when applying the more accurate calculation of a 10,000 year C14 build up.

It is ridiculous to think that the atmosphere of the Earth is only 10,000 years old, as the evidence suggests.  There is strong evidence that although the atmosphere is obviously older than 10,000 years, the absorption of C14 at its present rate has been much lower in the past.  This would result in a much slower and longer build up than assumed.  The C14 penetration and absorption into our atmosphere was very possibly inhibited by a protective layer shielding the atmosphere from cosmic ray bombardment, restricting C14 absorption.  When this shield ended, the Earth's climate changed radically and C14 build up started at today's rate.

Using Professor Cook's calculations of atmosphere C14 build up to present of only 10,000 yearsAssuming the present rate has only been going on for the past 5,000 years, back to the time of the protective canopy. The previous 5,000 years under this protective canapy shield, would have been building up at a very much slower rateThis protective shield was positioned some 40,000 years ago, (Genesis 1:6-8) ( see App.8A WATER CANOPY BREAKS UP AT FLOOD ).  This allowed some 35,000 years under shield protection for the build up of what today would take only 5,000 years, a seven times slower rate of build up.  A Neanderthal living and dying 4,400 years ago would have absorbed only one seventh of the C14 presently assumed.  Using this seven times slower build up rate and applying it to the C14 radio carbon dates for Neanderthal of 30,000 - 35,000 year old reading, would correct to a 4,300 - 5,000 years old reading, well in line with the Bible Nephilim pre flood period.

Foot note 1:

A conservative calculation for the population of the earth 4,500 years ago is 35 million.  The history of the human race places the first human breeding couple c 6,000 years ago.  Applying population increase doubling every 60 years then over a period of 1,500 years the population would have increased from 2 to 35 million (figures are approximations).

Foot Note 3

Evidence in the Masoretic text as per the Codex Leningrad B 19A manuscript
as presented in Kittels Biblia Hebraica.

Ref Gen 1 vs 6 "God commanded "Let an expanse (atmosphere) come to be between the waters, and let a dividing occur between the two waters."

Ref vs 7 "Then God proceeded to create the expanse (atmosphere) causing a dividing between the waters that should be under the expanse (atmosphere) and the waters that should be above the expanse (atmosphere)".

Ref vs 8 "And he called the expanse "Sky" (the atmosphere in which the birds fly see vs 20).

Manuscript: Codex Sanaticus Greek 3 - 4th Century
British museum.:

Ref 2 Pe 3 vs 5 "There used to be a Sky (Heavens or atmosphere) and a earth of old which stood out of water and in the middle of water suspended".

Ref 2 Pe 3 vs 6 "By means of this (suspended water) the inhabited world of that time was destroyed by being deluged with water".

Foot Note 4:

Evidence in Masoretic text as per the Codex Leningrad B 19A manuscript
as presented in Kittels Biblia Hebraica.

Ref Gen 7 vs 11 "... on this day all the springs of the vast water canopy was broken up and the windows of the heavens were opened".

Ref Gen 7 vs 12 "and the downpour upon the earth went on for forty days".